Bibliography in The Horseshoe Curve

The Horseshoe Curve
The Horseshoe Curve: Sabotage and Subversion in the Railroad City
“Fascinating...suspenseful....I have enjoyed re-living events, learning what I never knew, and seeing it all—with McIlnay’s guidance....”
—William Harry Brady, J. Edgar Thomson Foundation


Abella, Alex and Scott Gordon. Shadow Enemies: Hitler’s Secret Terrorist Plot against the United States. Guilford, Connecticut: The Lyons Press, 2002.

Albrecht, Henry P. World Famous Horseshoe Curve. Altoona, Pennsylvania: Altoona Chamber of Commerce, 1973.

Alexander, Edwin P. The Pennsylvania Railroad: A Pictorial History. New York: Bonanza Books, 1947.

Alexander, Edwin P. On the Main Line: The Pennsylvania Railroad in the 19th Century. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1971.

Alexander, James. “Where History and Magic Coverage: The Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania Heritage. Volume 21, Number 4. 1995.

Altoona Mirror. “Altoonans Among Enemy Aliens Interned.” July 3, 1942.

Altoona Mirror. “City and Pennsy Join in Protecting Horseshoe Curve Reservoirs: Patrol Force Is Augmented on Mountain. City Employs Seven More and Railroad Utilizes Defense Men.” June 29, 1942.

Altoona Mirror. “Congratulations to Our Hometown Team.” November 25, 2006.

Altoona Mirror. “FBI ‘Spot-Raids’ Here May Be Linked to Nazi Saboteurs.” July 2, 1942.

Altoona Mirror. “Strict Military Secrecy Guarding Saboteurs’ Trial.” July 11, 1942.

Altoona Mirror. “Saboteurs Facing Death.” June 29, 1942.

Aristotle. Politics. New York: The Modern Library, 1943.

Associated Press. “German Bares Aim in 1942 U-Boat Plot.” The New York Times, December 10, 1945.

Baden, Anne L. List of Speeches, Addresses, Etc. On Neutrality as Printed in the Congressional Record, 1937–1939. Washington: Library of Congress, 1939.

Barton, Peter D. “Horseshoe Curve and the Altoona Railroad Memorial Museum.” In Common Roots—Separate Branches. Peter D. Barton, Editor. London: Science Museum for the National Railway Museum, 1994.

Belknap, Michael R. “The Supreme Court Goes to War: The Meaning and Implications of the Nazi Saboteur Case.” Military Law Review. Volume 89. 1980.

Benson, T. Lloyd and Trina Rossman. “Re-Assessing Tom Scott: The ‘Railroad Prince.’” Mid-America Conference on History. Furman University, 1995.

Biddle, Francis. Questions and Answers on Regulations Concerning Aliens of Enemy Nationalities. Washington: United States Department of Justice, 1942.

Biddle, Francis. In Brief Authority. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1962.

Biddle, Francis. Memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. April 17, 1943.

Bishop, Avard Longley. The State Works of Pennsylvania. New Haven, Connecticut: Tuttle, Morehouse, and Taylor, 1907.

Blair County, Pennsylvania. Deed Book E. 1852.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Americans: The Colonial Experience. New York: Vintage Books, 1958.

Brady, Harry William. Letter to the author. November 20, 2006.

Brady, Harry William. Telephone interview with the author. October 27, 2006.

Breuer, William. Hitler’s Undercover War: The Nazi Espionage Invasion of the USA. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989.

Brinker, Russell C. Elementary Surveying. International Textbook, 1969.

Brown, John K. The Baldwin Locomotive Works: 1831–1915. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Brown, William H. The History of the First Locomotives in America. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1871.

Bulow, Louis. “An Opponent.” May 12, 2005.

Burgess, George H. and Miles C. Kennedy. Centennial History of the Pennsylvania Railroad: 1846–1946. Philadelphia: The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 1949.

Christgau, John. Enemies: World War II Alien Internment. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1985.

Cicero. Marcus Tullius: Pro Milone. 44 BC.

Cohen, Charles J. Rittenhouse Square Past and Present. Privately Published, 1922.

Cohen, Gary. “The Keystone Kommandos.” The Atlantic Monthly. February 2002.

Cohen, Gary. “The Keystone Kommandos.” July 14, 2005.

Cohen, Sheila. “The John Edgar Thomson Foundation.” October 27, 2006.

Collins, T.K and P.G. Collins. Guide for the Pennsylvania Railroad with an Extensive Map Including the Entire Route with All Its Windings, Objects of Interest, and Information Useful to the Traveler. Privately Published, 1855.

Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Personal Justice Denied. Washington: 1982.

Committee on Rules. Hearings before the Committee on Rules on Charges against the Department of Justice by Louis E. Post and Others. Washington: United States House of Representatives, 1920.

Countryman, Vern. “The History of the FBI: Democracy’s Development of a Secret Police.” In Investigating the FBI. Pat Watters and Stephen Gillers, Editors. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1973.

Cox, Albert. “The Saboteur Story.” Records of the Columbia Historical Society, 1957–1959. Washington: 1959.

Cramer, Harold. “An Overview of Pennsylvania Mapping Circa 1850 to 1900.” March 25, 2005.

Cupper, Dan. Personal note on author’s manuscript. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. February 7, 2007.

Cupper, Dan. Horseshoe Heritage: The Story of a Great Railroad Landmark. Halifax, Pennsylvania: Withers Publishing, 1992.

Cushman, Robert E. “Ex Parte Quirin, et al—the Nazi Saboteur Case.” Cornell Law Quarterly. Volume 28. November 1942.

Dallek, Robert. Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy: 1932–1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Danelski, David J. “The Saboteurs’ Case.” Journal of Supreme Court History. Volume 1. 1996.

Daniels, Rudolph. Trains across the Continent. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Daniels, Winthrop M. American Railroads: Four Phases of Their History. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1932.

Dasch, George John. Eight Spies against America. New York: Robert M. McBride Company, 1959.

Defense Security Service. “The Experience of the Second World War.” August 10, 2005.

Dickens, Charles. Pictures from Italy and American Notes for General Circulation. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell and Company, [1842] 1957.

Dobbs, Michael. Saboteurs: The Nazi Raid on America. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.

Donner, Frank J. The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America’s Political Intelligence System. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980.

Donovan, William and Edgar Mowrer. Fifth Column Lessons for America. Washington: American Council on Public Affairs, 1943.

DuBois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Vintage Books, 1990.

Edwards, E.J. “The Great Railroad Builders.” Munsey’s Magazine. February 1903.

Einstein, Albert. Living Philosophies. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1931.

Ely, Theo. N. and J. Elfreth Watkins. Catalogue of the Exhibit of the Pennsylvania Railroad at the World’s Columbian Exposition. 1893.

Ennis, Edward J. “Government Control of Alien Enemies: Program for Control of Aliens Carried Out with Firmness and Dispatch and with Continued Adherence to Humanitarian Principles.” State Government. May 1942.

Ennis, Edward J. “Federal Control Measures for Alien Enemies.” Police Yearbook. 1943.

Evans, Robert. “More Arrests Loom in Nazi Spy Plotting.” Altoona Mirror. June 29, 1942.

Farrington, S. Kip. Railroads at War. New York: Samuel Curl, 1944.

Fisher, Louis. Military Tribunals. New York: Novinka Books, 2003.

Fisher, Louis. Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2004.

Fisher, Louis. Military Tribunals: The Quirin Precedent. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2005.

Foley, Thomas. “George John Dasch.” March 20, 2005.

Folmar, John Kent and Ivan W. Saunders. “Some Reflections on Railroad Development in Western Pennsylvania.” Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. Volume 65, Number 4. 1982.

Ford, Representative Thomas F. Congressional Record. Washington: United States House of Representatives, July 28, 1939.

Fortune Magazine. “The Foreign Language Press.” November 1940.

Fox, Stephen. America’s Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German American Internment and Exclusion in World War II. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2000.

Gallitzin Area Tourist Council. “Tunnels Park and Museum.” 2006.

Gannon, Michael. Operation Drumbeat: The Dramatic True Story of Germany’s First U-Boat Attacks Along the American Coast in World War II. New York: Harper Perennial, 1990.

Giger, Cory. “Kudos to the Curve.” Altoona Mirror. November 15, 2006.

Gimpel, Erich and Will Berthold. Spy for Germany. Translated by Eleanor Brockett. London: Robert Hale Limited, 1957.

Grant, Ulysses S. Memoirs and Selected Letters. Volume 1. New York: Literary Classics of the United States, [1885] 1990.

Groff, George G. “Description of Physical Features and Geology-Botany.” In History of That Part of the Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys: Embraced in the Counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union, and Snyder in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Franklin Ellis, Editor. Philadelphia: Everts, Peck, and Richards, 1886.

Haines, Gerald K. and David A. Langbart. Unlocking the Files of the FBI: A Guide to Its Records and Classification System. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1993.

Hasian, Marouf Arif. “Franklin D. Roosevelt, Wartime Anxieties, and the Saboteurs Case.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs, Volume 6, Number 2. 2003.

Haupt, Herman. Reminiscences of Early History of the Pennsylvania Rail Road. Privately Published, Undated.

Helgason, Gudmunder. “Special Operations: German Saboteur Landings in June 1942.” March 18, 2005.

Hershey, Amos S. The Essentials of International Public Law and Organization. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1927.

Holbrook, Stewart H. The Story of American Railroads. New York: Crown Publishers, 1947.

Holmes, Harry N. Strategic Materials and National Strength. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1942.

Hoover, J. Edgar. Letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Washington: Federal Bureau of Investigation. June 18, 1940.

Hoover, J. Edgar. “Number of Aliens Arrested by the FBI.” Washington: Federal Bureau of Investigation, December 10, 1941.

Hoover, J. Edgar. Memorandum to Special Agent John F. Sears. Washington: Federal Bureau of Investigation, September 10, 1942.

Hull, Elizabeth. Without Justice for All: The Constitutional Rights of Aliens. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Husband, Rudy. Telephone interview with the author, November 7, 2006.

Hynd, Alan. Passport to Treason: The Inside Story of Spies in America. New York: Robert M. McBride and Company, 1943.

Jacobs, Timothy. The History of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bonanza Books, 1988.

Jefferson County Historical Center. “Rose Marie Guilli.” Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, November 19, 2005.

Jenkins, Philip. “Keystone Defenders: The Politics of Civil Defense in Pennsylvania: 1940–1960.” Los Alamos, New Mexico: August 1998.

Jones, U.J. History of the Early Settlement of the Juniata Valley: Embracing an Account of the Early Pioneers and the Trials and Privations Incident to the Settlement of the Valley, Predatory Incursions, Massacres, and Abductions by the Indians During the French and Indian Wars, and the War of the Revolution, &C. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Telegraph Press, 1855.

Kahn, David. Hitler’s Spies: German Military Intelligence in World War II. New York: Macmillan, 1978.

Kessler, Ronald. The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.

Krammer, Arnold. Undue Process: The Untold Story of America’s German Alien Internees. New York: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 1997.

Kurland, Philip B. and Gerhard Casper, Editors. “Petition for Writ of Certiorari to the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.” Volume 39. Arlington, Virginia: University Publications of America, 1975.

Lardner, George. “Nazi Saboteurs Captured! FDR Orders Secret Tribunal; 1942 Precedent Invoked by Bush against Al Qaeda.” The Washington Post and The University of Chicago Law School. March 11, 2005.

Levine, Lee. “Overview of the First Amendment.” February 12, 2006.

Lewie, Chris J. “The Allegheny Portage Railroad—Canal Boats above the Clouds.” June 13, 2006.

Lewie, Chris J. Two Generations on the Allegheny Portage Railroad: The First Railroad to Cross the Allegheny Mountains. Shippensburg, Pennsylvania: Burd Street Press, 2001.

Lissner, Will. “FBI Seizes 8 Saboteurs. Landed by U-Boats Here and in Florida to Blow up War Plants.” The New York Times. June 28, 1942.

Livingood, James Weston. The Philadelphia-Baltimore Trade Rivalry: 1780–1860. New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1970.

Long, Fred E. Conquering the Alleghenies—the Kittanning Trail, the Allegheny Portage Railroad, the Horseshoe Curve. Privately Published, 1966.

Madison, James. Personal letter to Thomas Jefferson. Washington: May 13, 1798.

Malone, James. “J. Edgar Thomson.” May 4, 2005.

Mann, Jonathan H. “George John Dasch.” March 20, 2005.

Marana, Giovanni Paolo. Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy. London: 1734.

Martin, John. “The Making of a Nazi Saboteur: Herman Haupt.” Harper’s Magazine, April 1943.

McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

McCullough, Robert and Walter Leuba. The Pennsylvania Main Line Canal. York, Pennsylvania: The American Canal and Transportation Center, 1973.

McGonigal, Robert S. “Grades and Curves: Railroading’s Weapons in the Battle against Gravity and Geography.” Trains Magazine, May 1, 2006.

McGonigal, Robert S. “Mountain Railroading Terminology,” Trains Magazine, May 1, 2006.

McNitt, R. Cummins. “Altoona: Life and Labor in a Railroad City.” May 21, 2006.

Melusky, Joseph. Personal interview with the author. November 27, 2006.

Messer, David W. Triumph II: Philadelphia to Harrisburg: 1828–1998. Baltimore: Barnard, Roberts, and Company, 1999.

Military Commission to Try Persons Charged with Offenses against the Law of War and the Articles of War. Transcript of Proceedings before the Military Commission to Try Persons Charged with Offenses against the Law of War and the Articles of War. Washington: July 8 to July 31, 1942. Department of History, University of Minnesota, 1942. March 9, 2005.

Miller, Eric. “Altoona America.” April 5, 2005.

Miller, Randall M. and William Pencak, Editors. Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth. University Park: 2005.

Millgramm, Karl-Heinz. “George John Dasch.” March 20, 2005.

Murray, Robert K. Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919–1920. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1955.

Nace, Ted. “The Genius.” Gangs of America: The Rise of Corporate Power and the Disabling of Democracy. 2006.

National Historical Association. A History of the Juniata Valley in Three Volumes. Volume. 1. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 1936.

National Intelligence Center. “Counter Intelligence in World War II.” Washington: Federation of American Scientists., 2005.

Nickalls, John L., Editor. The Journal of George Fox. Cambridge, England: 1952.

Pennsylvania Railroad. First Annual Report of the Directors of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Philadelphia: 1847.

Pennsylvania Railroad. The Allegheny Portage Railroad: Its Place in the Main Line of Public Works: Forerunner of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Philadelphia: 1930.

Pennsylvania Railroad. Annual Report, Year Ended December 31, 1942. Philadelphia: 1942.

Pfeifer, Paul E. “The Nazi Saboteurs.” April 19, 2005.

Poor, Henry Varnum. History of the Railroads and Canals of the United States of America. New York: Augustus M. Kelley, [1860] 1970.

Powers, Richard Gid. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: The Free Press, 1987.

Pruss, Jim. Telephone interview with the author, September 6, 2006.

Puttkammer, Ernst W. Alien Enemies and Alien Friends in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1943.

Rachlis, Eugene. They Came to Kill: The Story of Eight Saboteurs in America. New York: Random House, 1961.

Rails Northeast. Horseshoe Curve: One Hundred Twenty-Five Years. East McKeesport, Pennsylvania: 1981.

Reynell, John. Personal letter. Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1743.

Rhoads, Willard R. “The Pennsylvania Canal.” The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. Volume 43. Number 3, 1960.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “Executive Order No. 9066, 1942: Authorizing the Secretary of War to Prescribe Military Areas.” August 12, 2005.

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Rosenman, Samuel I., Editor. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt with a Special Introduction and Explanatory Notes by President Roosevelt: War and Aid to Democracies: 1940. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941.

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Schotter, H.W. The Growth and Development of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company: A Review of the Charter and Annual Reports of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company: 1846 to 1926, Inclusive. Philadelphia: Allen, Lane, and Scott, 1927.

Schwartz, Sally. “A Mixed Multitude”: The Struggle for Toleration in Colonial Pennsylvania. New York: New York University Press, 1987.

Seidel, David W. Personal letter to the author. November 27, 2006.

Sipes, William B. The Pennsylvania Railroad: Its Origin, Construction, Conditions, and Connections Embracing Historical, Descriptive, and Statistical Notices of Cities, Towns, Villages, Stations, Industries, and Objects of Interest on Its Various Lines in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Philadelphia: The Passenger Department, 1875.

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Stein, Stuart. “Colonel Erwin Von Lahousen-Vivremont.” May 18, 2005.

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Stover, John F. The Life and Decline of the American Railroad. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

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Strickland, William. Reports on Canals, Railways, Roads, and Other Subjects, Made to the Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of Internal Improvement. Philadelphia: H.C. Carey and I. Lea and The Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of Internal Improvement. 1826.

Swanberg, W.A. “The Spies Who Came in from the Sea.” American Heritage, April 1970.

The Freeport Facts. January 8, 1942.

The John Edgar Thomson Foundation. “Financial Assistance for Daughters of Deceased Railroaders.” September 29, 2006.

The New York Times. “Travel for Aliens Made Easier Here; Applicants for Permits Need Only One Personal Appearance, Renewals to Be Mailed.” January 7, 1942.

The Railroad Press. World Famous Horseshoe Curve. Hanover, Pennsylvania: 2006.

Theoharis, Athan G. and Jolin Stuart Cox. The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

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Theoharis, Athan. “The FBI’s Stretching of Presidential Directives, 1976.” Political Science Quarterly, Winter 1976.

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United States Supreme Court. “In the Matters of the Application of Ernest Peter Burger, et al, for Writs of Habeas Corpus: Respondent’s Answer to Petition.” Special July Term 1942.

United States Supreme Court. “In the Matters of the Application of Ernest Peter Burger, et al, for Writs of Habeas Corpus.” July 30, 1942.

Vance, James E. The North American Railroad: Its Origin, Evolution, and Geography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

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Vleck, William C. Van. The Administrative Control of Aliens. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1932.

Ward, James A. “Herman Haupt and the Development of the Pennsylvania Railroad.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Volume 95, Number 1. 1971.

Ward, James A. That Man Haupt: A Biography of Herman Haupt. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973.

Ward, James A. “J. Edgar Thomson and Thomas A. Scott: A Symbiotic Relationship.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Volume 100, Number 1. 1976.

Ward, James A. “Power and Accountability on the Pennsylvania Railroad: 1846–1878.” Harvard Business Review. Volume 49, Number 1. 1975.

Ward, James A. J. Edgar Thomson: Master of the Pennsylvania. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Ward, James A. “Thomas A. Scott.” Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography: Railroads in the Nineteenth Century. Robert L. Frey, Editor. New York: Bruccoli, Clark, and Layman Books and Facts on File, 1988.

Ward, James. “John Edgar Thomson and the Cult of Personality on the Pennsylvania Railroad.” Railroad History. Volume 177. 1997.

Ward, James. “J. Edgar Thomson: Master of the Pennsylvania Railroad.” May 4, 2005.

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Whitehead, Don. The FBI Story: A Report to the People. New York: Random House, 1956.

Wighton, Charles, and Gunter Peis. Hitler’s Spies and Saboteurs: Based on the German Secret Service Diary of General Lahousen. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1958.

William L. Howard Ordnance Technical Intelligence Museum. Technical Intelligence Bulletins: Volume 6: November–December 2001. March 18, 2005.

Wilson, William Bender. “The Evolution, Decadence, and Abandonment of the Allegheny Portage Railroad.” In A Publication Commemorating a Visitation by Members and Friends of the Blair County Chapter and the Cambria County Chapter, Sons of the American Revolution. Mahlon J. Baumgardner and Floyd G. Hoenstine, Editors. Cresson, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, 1952.

Wilson, William Bender. History of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company with Plan of Organization, Portraits of Officials, and Biographical Sketches. Volume II. Philadelphia: Henry T. Coates and Company, 1899. “Morris Township, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania.” August 21, 2006. “Wilhelm Canaris.” May 23, 2005.. “J. Edgar Thomson.” September 5, 2006. “Colliery and Quarry Railroads.” May 5, 2005. “John Loudon McAdam.” July 25, 2006. “US Supreme Court: Ex Parte Milligan, 71 US 2 (1866).” October 12, 2005. “Curve Is a Symbol of Railroading’s Proud Past.” May 5, 2005. “The Horseshoe Curve.” June 15, 2006. “US Report under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” January 20, 2006. “Alien Enemies Act of July 6, 1798 and the Sedition Act of July 14, 1798.” December 20, 2005. “Ex Parte Quirin,”317 US 1 (1942). August 10, 2005. “John Edgar Thomson.” August 19, 2005. “FBI History: Famous Cases: George John Dasch and the Nazi Saboteurs.” March 10 2005. “FBI History: Timeline of FBI History.” August 10, 2005. “About the First Amendment.” February 11, 2006. “The Gallitzin Tunnels Gallitzin Tunnels Park and Museum.” June 13, 2006. “German Submarine: U-571.” June 13, 2005. “John Edgar Thomson.” August 17, 2005. “Admiral Wilhelm Canaris.” May 11, 2005. “Ex Parte Quirin: Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.” March 11, 2005. “Per Curiam.” November 16, 2005. “Ex Parte Quirin.” November 11, 2005. “Rights of Aliens.” December 12, 2005. “Friedrich Ernst Auhagen.” February 10, 1996. “Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks.” May 5, 2005. “The Best Train Watching in North America!” June 15, 2006. “Chapter III: The Great Pennsylvania System: The Railroad.” May 5, 2005. “John Edgar Thomson.” August 17, 2005. “Company Information.” November 7, 2006. “Ex Parte Quirin: Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.” March 11, 2005. “Certiorari.” January 10, 2006. “Railfan’s Guide to the Altoona Area.” August 3, 2005. “Soldier to the Last Minute.” May 13, 2005. “U-Boat Crews: The Commander.” May 13, 2005. “The First Amendment of the Constitution.” November 27, 2005. “United States Constitution.” November 27, 2005. “Funicular.” November 7, 2006.